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Talking about Plant Growth Regulators
Now the market is misled by some manufacturers, such as plant regulators are hormones, plant regulators are harmful to the human body, etc. Some fertilizer manufacturers even advertise that my products do not contain hormones and regulators. In fact, it is a misunderstanding. From my point of view, plant regulators, like food additives, are only auxiliary, and it is beneficial to apply within a certain range.
The current plant regulators belong to the scope of pesticides. The state has also introduced a series of measures to control pesticides. It is legal to use them rationally. It is illegal to add plant growth regulators to fertilizer products that have not obtained pesticide registration. Therefore, most of the fertilizers on the market still reflect the functions of pesticides, labeling pesticide ingredients but not nutrients; while the current fertilizer products mostly reflect the functions of nutrition and plant growth. The efficacy of the regulator is not dared and not allowed to be marked, otherwise it is illegal.
There is no clear statement on whether it is legal under the double standard (that is, obtaining pesticides and fertilizer registrations). However, the current fertilizer products have to add synergistic ingredients in order to quickly reflect the product effect. How to be legal and effective is a question for synergist enterprises and fertilizer product development enterprises.
1. Types of plant regulators:
1. It is recognized that there are 5 types of plant conditioners, namely auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, ethylene and abscisic acid. Generally speaking, the first three categories are substances that promote plant growth and development. Ethylene is mainly a substance that promotes organ shedding, and abscisic acid is a substance that inhibits plant growth and development.
2. Classification according to effect: According to the impact on plant physiological activities, it can be divided into:
(1) It is an accelerator, which can promote plant growth, including: gibberellin, ethephon, chlorfenuron (pyrazolone, taufenuron), thidiazuron (deyelin), cyclopropionic acid, 30. Alkanol, Benzyl Adenine, 4-Chlorophenoxyacetic Acid (Fallidin, Tomato Ling), Indole Acetic Acid, Naphthalene Acetic Acid, Diethylstilbene, Procyclonic Acid, Sodium Nitrophenolate, Brassinolide, Rapeseed lactones, chitosan, etc.
(2) It is an inhibitor, which can inhibit the growth of plants, including: abscisic acid, Yiyadan (Qingxiansu, maleic hydrazide), triiodobenzoic acid, glyphosate, and plastic.
(3) It is a retarding agent, which regulates and delays growth, including mepipene (regulatory amine, meclizine), chloroquine, choline chloride, paclobutrazol, uniconazole, iprazol, trinexapyr, trinexapac-ethyl , Flubenzamide, Thiaine, Butyric hydrazide, Regulated phosphine, Pyridinol, etc.
3. Plant regulators commonly used in fertilizers are added to most of the pesticides, foliar fertilizers and some functional fertilizers on the market. Commonly used in fertilizers and pesticides are gibberellin, indole acetic acid, naphthalene acetic acid, diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate, sodium nitrophenolate, brassinolide, and triacontanol. At present, the commonly used regulators that are added to fertilizers on the market are diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate, sodium nitrophenolate, and brassinolide, which can be added to organic fertilizers, compound fertilizers, water-soluble fertilizers, and foliar fertilizers. Indole acetate and naphthalene acetate are added to rooting powder and seedling substrate.
Second, the effect of plant regulators
Plant growth regulators mainly have the following characteristics in application:
1. Wide range of functions and many application fields;
2. The effect is remarkable and the residual toxicity is less. The use of low concentration of plant growth regulators can play an important role in regulating plant growth, development and metabolism;
3. Some problems that are difficult to be solved by cultivation techniques and measures can be solved by using plant growth regulators, such as breaking dormancy, regulating sex, promoting flowering, chemical pruning, preventing shedding, promoting rooting, and enhancing resistance.
3. Application situation at home and abroad
It has been widely used in modern agriculture in countries all over the world, and it is a method to increase the yield and quality of agricultural products. These research applications have been used at home and abroad as one of the main measures to achieve overproduction in agriculture in the 21st century.
Foreign countries allow the use of plant regulators. The EU, Japan, Australia and other countries require registration of plant regulators for use on crops, and strictly regulate the dosage and usage. This registration is similar to China's fertilizer registration and pesticide registration. For example, Australia stipulates that the limit value of paclobutrazol in stone fruits and various tropical and subtropical fruits (the skin is not edible) is 0.01mg/kg; Japan stipulates that the temporary limit standard of gibberellin is 0.2mg/kg; Strict standards have been established for the use of chlorfenuron in kiwifruit, grapes and other 6 kinds of fruits, and the limit is 0.01mg/kg; South Korea has formulated the limit standard of thidiazuron in grapes, watermelons, cantaloupes and kiwifruit, except for grapes. The limit is 0.2mg/kg in the other three kinds of fruits, and 0.1mg/kg in the other three kinds of fruits. At present, the international limits on 2,4-D in citrus (with peel) products are relatively loose, ranging from 1.0 to 5.0 mg/kg, while the limits for other fruits are stricter. For example, CAC stipulates that The limit for pome fruit is 0.01mg/kg; the limit for pears and apples in Japan is 0.01mg/kg; the limit for pears and stone fruits in the United States is 0.05mg/kg.
4. Use restrictions and effects
When using it, first determine the dose, and then determine the concentration. Too large concentration is easy to cause phytotoxicity, and too small concentration has no effect. Basically, the positive and negative effects of the conditioner can be significantly effective within 24 hours to 72 hours. The following 4 kinds of fertilizers are added in the market:
1. Amexam DA-6 is a high-energy plant growth regulator newly discovered by American scientists in the 1990s. It has broad-spectrum and breakthrough effects. The quality can be increased by 10-40%, the early maturity can be effective in 5-7 days and 6-24 hours.
2. Sodium nitrophenolate is a highly efficient plant growth regulator first discovered in Japan in the 1960s. In 1997, with the approval of the US National Environmental Protection Agency, sodium nitrophenolate entered the American Green Food Project and became the only synthetic plant at that time. growth regulator. Sodium Nitrophenolate and its preparations are designated by the International Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) as the recommended plant growth regulator for green food engineering. Strong seedlings, disease resistance, stress resistance, increased flowers and fruits, increased fruit size, sweet taste, improved quality, early maturity, can increase yield by 5-30%, and effective within 24 hours to 48 hours.
3. Brassinolide Brassinolide was discovered by a team of scientists from the Research Center of the United States Department of Agriculture. After 1987, it was recognized by the academic community as the sixth type of plant hormone. It is obviously effective within 12-24 hours of application. A new type of green environmental protection plant growth regulator, which is treated by soaking seeds with suitable concentration of brassinolide and spraying stems and leaves. It can also make the tea leaf picking time earlier, and can also make the melons and fruits higher in sugar, larger in size, higher in yield, and more durable in storage. Plant hormones are harmless to humans and animals, and are very safe and effective in normal doses. Natural Brassin can be widely used in various economic crops, generally can increase production by 5-10%, and the highest can reach 30%.
4. Naphthalene acetate auxin analog, commonly used in commercial rooting powder or rooting agent, can promote rooting and germination, control plant type, induce flowering and fruiting, prevent flower disease and prevent falling off.
5. Common functional substances with plant regulators (also several categories of plant stimulants)
1. Humic acid is used as nutrient soil additive, rooting and root-strengthening fertilizer additive, soil conditioner, plant growth regulator, foliar fertilizer compound agent, cold resistance agent, drought resistance agent, compound fertilizer synergist, etc., and nitrogen, phosphorus, The humic acid fertilizer made from the combination of potassium and other elements has the functions of fertilizer synergy, soil improvement, stimulation of crop growth, and improvement of agricultural product quality. Magnesium humate, zinc humate, and iron urea humate have good effects on supplementing soil magnesium deficiency, zinc deficiency in corn, and iron deficiency in fruit trees, respectively; humic acid, herbicide, atrazine and other pesticides are mixed to improve efficacy, Inhibit residual poison; sodium humate is effective in treating apple tree rot.
2. Fulvic acid broad-spectrum plant growth regulator, can promote plant growth, especially can properly control the opening of stomata on crop leaves, reduce transpiration, play an important role in drought resistance, improve stress resistance, increase yield and improve quality, mainly The application objects are wheat, corn, sweet potato, millet, rice, cotton, peanut, rapeseed, tobacco, sericulture, melon and fruit, vegetables, etc. It can be mixed with some non-alkaline pesticides, and often has a synergistic effect.
3. Amino acids (1) Supplementary source of organic nitrogen nutrients; (2) Chelating agent of metal ions. Amino acids have the function of complexing (chelating) metal ions, and it is easy to carry the medium and trace elements (calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, zinc, copper, molybdenum, boron, selenium, etc.) required by plants into plants. Improve plant utilization of various nutrients; (3) Enzymatic preparations.
4. Seaweed is extracted from seaweed and is mainly used as a plant growth regulator, which can promote cell division, delay senescence and increase root and stem growth.
5. Chitin extracted from crabs, shrimps, shells, etc. can activate cells, promote root growth, make stems and leaves grow lush, and can make flowers bloom more beautifully, fruits are more abundant, and it also has the effect of sterilization and soil improvement.
To sum up, this is the reason why the current mineral sources such as fulvic acid, amino acid, chitosan and alginic acid are on fire. Most of it is due to the fact that the plant regulators of the manufacturers have corresponding standards for testing, and most fertilizer companies are unwilling to take risks. In the case of insufficient product effects and selling points, there are only concepts and effects such as mineral source fulvic acid and amino acids, and some plant fermented products such as certain Cong, which is currently very popular. Of course, there are also standard deficiencies, and current plant growth regulators are also facing this update.
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